KPV is the C-terminal peptide fragment of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It is one of many short peptide derivatives of alpha-MSH that has been tested to determine if they retain similar photoprotective properties, activity against ischemia, sexual effects, or benefits on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. KPV, which is made up of lysine-proline-valine turns out to have significant anti-inflammatory effects. The peptide is under active research as a potential therapeutic in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. It has shown evidence of potent anti-inflammatory activity in the central nervous system, GI tract, lungs, vascular system, and joints. Because KPV is a small peptide, it can be administered in multiple ways including oral, intravenous, and transdermal routes.
Kpv Peptide Review
Amino Acid Sequence: Lys-Pro-Val
Molecular Formula: C16H30N4O4
Molecular Weight: 342.43 g/mol
PubChem CID: 125672
CAS Number: 67727-97-3
Synonyms: MSH (11-13), ACTH(11-13), alpha-MSH(11-13)
Perhaps the most important discovery to arise from Kpv peptide research is the finding that the peptide reduces intestinal inflammation. In mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Kpv peptide shows robust results, reducing inflammatory infiltrates, MPO activity, and overall histological evidence of inflammation. Mice treated with KPV in the study recovered faster and had more pronounced weight gain than mice treated with placebo.
Further research on delivery mechanisms for Kpv has revealed that loading Kpv onto nanoparticles functionalized with hyaluronic acid helps to direct the inflammatory effects of the peptide to proper locations within the intestine. This leads to accelerated mucosal healing and alleviation of inflammation via a strong down regulation of TNF-alpha in mouse models. In many ways, Kpv is a more effective and more targeted means of reducing inflammation in IBD without affecting TNF-alpha in other locations in the body. The benefit of modifying KPV is in improving the peptide’s oral bioavailability. This does not increase the efficacy of the peptide, but does have an impact on potency and thus total dose require to achieve an effect.
Research suggests that TNF-alpha is not the only inflammatory mediator that KPV peptide has an impact on. The peptide also reduces NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. These effects work in tandem with TNF-alpha inhibition to reduce inflammatory changes in the intestine. Mice treated with KPV peptide have substantially less colonic infiltration and normal colon lengths compared to controls